THE BH CURVE APPLICATION IN POWER TRANSFORMER TUTORIALS

THE BH CURVE APPLICATION IN POWER TRANSFORMER BASIC INFORMATION
What Is BH Curve? How It Is Applied In Transformers?


For actual transformer core materials, the relationship between B and H is much more complicated. For a flux that periodically changes, the B-H curve depends on the magnitude of the flux density and the periodic
frequency.

Figure 1.7 plots the B-H curve for a ferromagnetic core with a 60 Hz sinusoidal flux density having a moderate peak value.


The B-H curve is a closed loop with the path over time moving in a counterclockwise direction over each full cycle. Note that when the magnetizing current is zero (H 0) there is still a considerable positive or negative residual flux in the core.

This residual flux is from crystalline structures in ferromagnetic materials that remain magnetically aligned even after the MMF is removed.

For a given peak amplitude of flux density, the B-H loop becomes narrower at frequencies below 60 Hz, although the width of the loop is not directly proportional to frequency. Even at very low frequencies approaching DC, the B-H curve has a finite area contained in the loop.

As seen in Figure 1.7, magnetic materials are highly nonlinear, so treating m as a constant is clearly an oversimplification. Nevertheless, assuming that materials are linear, at least over some range of flux density, is required in order to do quantitative analysis.

As the peak amplitude of the flux increases, the core goes into saturation; i.e., B increases at a much smaller rate with respect to increasing H. This means that μ gets effectively smaller as B increases. In saturation, the slope dB/dH is approximately equal to μ0. Figure 1.8 plots a typical B-H curve for a ferromagnetic core with a 60 Hz sinusoidal flux density having a large peak value.


This core material saturates at approximately +/- 1.5 Wb/m2 ( +/- 1.5 T), which is a typical saturation value for materials used in power transformers.

The magnitude of H increases greatly when the core goes into saturation, meaning that the peak magnetizing current increases dramatically. Again, the width of the B-H loop becomes narrower at frequencies below 60 Hz for a given peak amplitude of flux.

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