DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS HARMONICS AND DC EFFECTS BASIC AND TUTORIALS

DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS HARMONICS AND DC EFFECTS BASIC INFORMATION
What Are The Harmonics And DC Effects Of Distribution Transformers?


Harmonics and DC Effects
Rectifier and discharge-lighting loads cause currents to flow in the distribution transformer that are not pure power-frequency sine waves. Using Fourier analysis, distorted load currents can be resolved into components that are integer multiples of the power frequency and thus are referred to as harmonics.

Distorted load currents are expected to be high in the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and sometimes the 11th and 13th harmonics, depending on the character of the load.


Odd-Ordered Harmonics
Load currents that contain the odd-numbered harmonics will increase both the eddy losses and other stray losses within a transformer. If the harmonics are substantial, then the transformer must be derated to prevent localized and general overheating.

ANSI standards suggest that any transformer with load current containing more than 5% total harmonic \ distortion should be loaded according to the appropriate ANSI guide (IEEE, 1998).


Even-Ordered Harmonics
Analysis of most harmonic currents will show very low amounts of even harmonics (2nd, 4th, 6th, etc.) Components that are even multiples of the fundamental frequency generally cause the waveform to be nonsymmetrical about the zero-current axis.

The current therefore has a zeroth harmonic or dc-offset component. The cause of a dc offset is usually found to be half-wave rectification due to a defective rectifier or other component.

The effect of a significant dc current offset is to drive the transformer core into saturation on alternate half-cycles. When the core saturates, exciting current can be extremely high, which can then burn out the primary winding in a very short time.

Transformers that are experiencing dc-offset problems are usually noticed because of objectionably loud noise coming from the core structure. Industry standards are not clear regarding the limits of dc offset on a transformer.

A recommended value is a dc current no larger than the normal exciting current, which is usually 1% or less of a winding’s rated current (Galloway, 1993).


1 comment:

  1. How do i check harmonics in my three winding 1260 kva 34.5/380 volt 3 phase power transformer. It is connected to a solar inverter.

    ReplyDelete

Related Posts Plugin for WordPress, Blogger...

Previous Articles

TOP COUNTRIES