FERRORESONANCE AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER CONTRIBUTION BASICS AND TUTORIALS

FERRORESONANCE AND DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER CONTRIBUTION BASIC INFORMATION
What Is The Contribution Of Distribution Transformers On Ferroresonance?

Ferroresonance is an overvoltage phenomenon that occurs when charging current for a long underground cable or other capacitive reactance saturates the core of a transformer.

Such a resonance can result in voltages as high as five times the rated system voltage, damaging lightning arresters and other equipment and possibly even the transformer itself.

When ferroresonance is occurring, the transformer is likely to produce loud squeals and groans, and the noise has been likened to the sound of steel roofing being dragged across a concrete surface.

A typical ferroresonance situation is shown in Figure 2.2.10 and consists of long underground cables feeding a transformer with a delta-connected primary.



FIGURE 2.2.10 is a typical ferroresonance situation. (From IEEE C57.105-1978, IEEE Guide for Application of Transformer Connections in Three-Phase Distribution Systems, copyright 1978 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. The IEEE disclaims any responsibility or liability resulting from the placement and use in the described manner. Information is reprinted with the permission of the IEEE.)


The transformer is unloaded or very lightly loaded and switching or fusing for the circuit operates one phase at a time.

Ferroresonance can occur when energizing the transformer as the first switch is closed, or it can occur if one or more distant fuses open and the load is very light. Ferroresonance is more likely to occur on systems with higher primary voltage and has been observed even when there is no cable present.

All of the contributing factors — delta or wye connection, cable length, voltage, load, single-phase switching —must be considered together. Attempts to set precise limits for prevention of the phenomenon have been frustrating.

For more on ferroresonance click the link.

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