SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER BASICS AND TUTORIALS

SUBSTATION TRANSFORMER BASIC INFORMATION
What Are Substation Transformer? How To Choose Substation Transformer?

Substation Transformer
Substation transformers may consist of three-phase units or banks of three single-phase units. The size of these individual installations may range from 150 kVA (three-phase) in small rural stations to upwards of 25,000 kVA at larger urban and suburban substations.


Their impedances are generally low, restricting unregulated voltage variations at the bus to a few percent, except where fault current levels are high. In this case, transformer impedances are increased to limit fault current duty to design limits.

The impedances of the transformer banks in a station should match each other as closely as practical to have the banks share the load as equally as practical.

The transformers may be connected in a delta or wye pattern, on both the incoming high-voltage (subtransmission) side and the outgoing low-voltage (primary circuit) side. The transformers are ordinarily of the two-winding standard type, operating much as the distribution transformers.

For many reasons, including the random and nonuniform movement of the molecules in the core of the transformer, the alternating magnetic field that is set up may be distorted, producing serrated sine waves on both sides of the transformer. These serrations can be broken down into a series of harmonics or waves with frequencies of 3, 5, 7, etc., times the basic frequency (usually 60 cycles per second).

If the transformers have a ground on either side, the harmonics or fluctuations flow to ground and the original sine wave essentially remains undistorted. If the windings are connected in delta fashion, these fluctuations circulate around the delta, filtering out the harmonics and eliminating them from the sine wave formed in the windings; however, they do cause some unnecessary heating.

Where the transformer windings are connected in a wye arrangement without a ground or neutral back to the source, the harmonics may be particularly bothersome. To overcome these, each of the single-phase transformations (singly or within a three-phase unit) is provided with a third, small-capacity winding; the three such windings are connected in delta (even though the main primary and secondary windings are connected in wye).

The delta thus formed allows the harmonics to circulate within it, producing a little heat but essentially filtering them out, so that the sine wave produced on both the high and low sides of the transformer will be a more pure sine wave.

1 comment:

  1. Nice post, I really like the way you share the information about Substation Transformer. Thanks

    ReplyDelete

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