DELTA, STAR, AND OPEN DELTA TRANSFORMER CONNECTION COMPARISON


The choice between the methods would be governed largely by the service requirements. When the three transformers are delta-connected, one can be removed without interrupting the performance of the circuit, the two remaining transformers in a manner acting in series to carry the load of the missing transformer.

The desire to obtain immunity from a shutdown due to the disabling of one transformer has led to the extensive use of the delta connection of transformers, especially on the low-potential delivery side. It is to be noted that if one transformer is crippled, the other two will be subjected to greatly increased losses.

Thus, if three delta-connected transformers are equally loaded until each carries 100 A, there will be 173 A in each external circuit wire. If one transformer is now removed and 173 A continues to be supplied to each external circuit wire, each of the remaining transformers must carry 173 A, since it is now in series with an external circuit.

Therefore, each transformer must now show 3 times as much copper loss as when all three transformers were active, or the total copper loss is now increased to a value of 6 relative to its former value of 3. An open-delta installation is made frequently when considerable future increase in load is expected.

The increase can be accommodated by adding the third transformer to the bank at a later date and thus increasing the capacity of the load that can be carried by about 75 percent.

A change from delta to Y in the secondary circuit alters the ratio of the transmission emf to the receiver emf from 1 to 1.73 .

On account of this fact, when the emf of the transmission circuit is so high that the successful insulation of transformer coils becomes of constructive and pecuniary importance, the three-phase line sides of the transformers are connected in “star” and the neutral is grounded.

The windings of most transformers operating on systems of 100,000 V or more are star-connected.


Comparative cost of transformers for different grouping for three-phase service. 
The accompanying table shows the costs of the single-phase transformers, of proper capacities for either a delta or an open-delta grouping, and of a three-phase transformer to serve a 75-kVA installation. The relative costs will be the same for the present date.


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