RATIO TEST (TTR) OF POWER TRANSFORMER BASIC INFORMATION


This test determines the ratio (TTR) of the number of turns in the high-voltage winding to that in the low-voltage winding. The ratio test shall be made at rated or lower voltage and rated or higher frequency.

In the case of three phase transformers when each phase is independent and accessible, single phase power should be used, although three-phase power may be used when convenient. The tolerance for the ratio test is 0.5% of the winding voltages specified on the transformer nameplate.

The accepted methods for performing the ratio test are the voltmeter method, the comparison method, and the ratio bridge. With the voltmeter method, the primary winding is excited at rated frequency and the voltage at the primary and the open-circuit voltage of the secondary winding are measured.

The ratio is the primary voltage divided by the secondary voltage. The comparison method applies voltage simultaneously to the transformer under test and the open-circuit secondary voltages are measured and compared.

The ratio bridge method is the most accurate method and can easily determine the TTR to the very small tolerances required by the standard. The test apparatus is commonly referred to as a TTR Test Set.

One such test set is manufactured by the Biddle Company and has proven to be especially useful as a diagnostic test in the field, so its operation will be described in detail. This test set is shown in Figure 8.1.

FIGURE 8.1 Circuit diagram of a TTR test set.

The clamp test leads are connected to the secondary winding of the transformer under test and the clip leads are connected to the primary winding under test. The secondary winding of the transformer under test and the secondary of a calibrated reference transformer in the test set are both excited by the same 8 V source voltage from a hand-cranked generator. A voltmeter is used to verify that the correct voltage is being applied.

An ammeter measures the exciting current into the transformer under test. When the voltage developed across the primary of the transformer under test (1-2) is equal to the voltage developed across the primary of the calibrated reference transformer (2-3), then the voltage across the synchronous rectifier is zero and the galvanometer detector reads zero.

With more voltage developed across 1-2 than across 2-3, the galvanometer has a negative deflection. With less voltage developed across 1-2 than across 2-3, the galvanometer has a positive deflection. The ratio dials are used to adjust the ratio of the reference transformer.


A simplified equivalent circuit of the TTR test set is shown in Figure 8.2. The transformer under test is also shown. Note that the current through the detector, labeled ‘‘Det’’ in the figure, is zero when the voltages developed at the high-voltage terminals of the test-set transformer and the transformer under test are equal. This condition exists when the ratios of the test-set transformer and the transformer under test are equal.

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