DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION OF AUTOTRANSFORMERS USING HIGH-IMPEDANCE RELAYS BASIC INFORMATION AND TYPICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM


Some utilities provide protection for large high-voltage and extra-high-voltage autotransformers by using voltage-operated bus-type high-impedance differential relays. Typical connections of this protective system for autotransformers, with the neutral point of the wye winding solidly grounded, are shown below.


Typical schematic connections for high-impedance differential protection of a Y autotransformer with unloaded tertiary

This arrangement provides protection for all types of phase faults and ground faults, but not turn-to turn
faults. In this application, three sets of three-phase CTs are required, one set on the high-voltage side, another set on the low-voltage side, and the third set in the neutral ends of the winding.

All CTs should have the same turns ratio and should be reasonably matched in accuracy class. A single high-impedance relay connected in a ground differential scheme is also applicable for autotransformer protection.

This protection is immune to the effects of magnetizing inrush current because inrush current is cancelled by the neutral CTs. Also, there is no imbalance current in the relay circuit due to the load tap changing equipment.

Thus a high-impedance differential relay can be applied without any harmonic restraint, load bias, or time delay. Autotransformers are often provided with a Δ tertiary winding. It should be noted that with this type of scheme no protection is afforded for faults occurring in the Δ tertiary winding.

Where the terminals for this winding are not brought out to supply load, one corner of the Δ can be connected between the end of one phase of the main winding and its neutral CT. This connection is shown above.

In such an arrangement, the tertiary winding is included in the differential protection zone, and the relay would sense ground faults in the tertiary winding. This scheme does not provide protection for phase faults or turn-to-turn faults in the tertiary winding.

Where the tertiary winding is used to supply load, the Δ winding corner connection cannot be used. Hence, separate protection is required.

Information can be found here.

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